A Valley Ablaze: The King Ludwig Bonfire in Oberammergau, Germany

Since 1888, residents in the German town of Oberammergau have celebrated the eve of the birth of the Bavarian king, Ludwig II, with a dramatic bonfire display. Germans call this 24 August event the König-Ludwig-Feuer or Ludwigsfeuer. In the Bavarian dialect, that name translates to Luggi-Feier.

The Annual King Ludwig Bonfire (König-Ludwig-Feuer)

The focal point of the Ludwigsfeuer is the Kofel, Oberammergau’s distinctive mountain. (Often depicted on souvenirs and postcards, the Kofel bears a (very) slight resemblance to Switzerland’s Matterhorn.)

On top of the Kofel, male “fire-makers” (Feuermachers) construct a wooden crown that’s about 14 meters (46 feet) tall. Farther below, on the Kofel’s slopes, the men craft a cross out of timber. And on other neighboring mountaintops in the Ammergau Alps, the fire-makers erect a wooden “L” and a “II” — short for “King Ludwig II.” The 90 or so Feuermachers are all locals, and many of them are descendants of past fire-makers. 

Preparation for the Ludwigsfeuer begins months in advance. First, the fire-makers cut timber and set it out to dry. Later, they carry the wood up to several mountains in the valley, including the Kofel. The Kofel’s peak is 1,342 meters high (about 4,402 feet).

On August 24th, around nine in the evening, shots from a gun salute echo through the valley. This signifies the beginning of the event. Shortly thereafter, the fire-makers set the crown, cross, and initials ablaze. Occasionally, you can hear the fire-makers yodeling and singing — even if you’re down in the valley, far below.

As the fire devours the wooden symbols visible throughout the valley, a traditional brass band plays Bavarian music. The band eventually wraps up by playing the Bavarian anthem.

When the fires die out, the fire-makers begin to make their way down from the Kofel, using torches to light the way through the forest. From the ground, this string of men looks like a glowing snake. (I’ve climbed up rugged Mount Kofel by day, and I imagine the trails must feel rather treacherous when it’s dark!)

Once the fire-makers are back in town, they join Oberammergau residents and walk in a procession through the main streets. Brass band musicians and drummers provide a soundtrack for this spectacle. Eventually, the fire-makers and musicians arrive at the Gasthof Rose, a traditional inn. There, with hearty food and much beer, they celebrate until the wee hours of the morning.

My parents live in Oberammergau, and my father’s birthday is the same day as Bavaria’s much-loved king. Since my parents’ home has a great view of the Kofel, my mom and dad often hold get-togethers during the King Ludwig Bonfire. They kick off their celebration with a late-afternoon cookout and the evening culminates with the fiery bonfire.

The year Shawn and I were able to attend my parent’s shindig, my mom incorporated Bavarian flair into the otherwise American cookout. She set the tables with blue-and-white linens reminiscent of the Bavarian flag. She also used a crown-shaped cookie cutter to make appetizers befitting a royal.

The Bonfire’s Origins and King Ludwig’s Connection with Oberammergau

To international visitors, King Ludwig is perhaps best known as being the “fairy-tale king” who commissioned several of Germany’s most famous castles. They include Neuschwanstein (after which the Disney Castle was modeled), Linderhof, and Herrenchiemsee.

King Ludwig had close ties with Oberammergau, likely because his smallest palace (Linderhof) is only a few kilometers away.

In 1871, King Ludwig also attended a special performance of Oberammergau’s world-famous Passion Play. This event inspired the king to donate a marble crucifixion monument to the people of Oberammergau.

The Crucifixion Monument (Kreuzigungsgruppe), as it’s called, was initially the tallest stone monument of its kind. Weighing 58 tons, the sculpture’s transport presented logistical challenges. Sadly, several laborers were killed while moving it through the rugged mountains. In October 1875, the Crucifixion Monument was inaugurated with a fiery unveiling. It’s believed that the King Ludwig Bonfire that continues to this day has its origins in that event.

After King Ludwig’s mysterious death in 1888, several Oberammergau residents lit a fiery memorial on the Kofel to honor the dead king. A bonfire has taken place annually ever since, come rain or shine. The event has been cancelled a few times, however, when dry-weather conditions would’ve made it dangerous to hold such a spectacle.

The royal crown symbol that you see at the bonfire today was not added to the Ludwigsfeuer event until 1946.

More Information:

Oberammergau Kofel Mountain Bavaria
Mount Kofel, looking majestic by day. We made the ascent to its summit back in the summer of 2013. Having found the last part of the climb a bit treacherous, I can’t imagine doing it in the dark!
Oberammergau Kreuzigungsgruppe Crucifix Monument
On the Osterbichl Mountain (just to the right of the church steeple in the photo on the left) is the Crucifixion Monument. The marble statue (right) was donated to the town of Oberammergau by King Ludwig II, as a way of expressing his thanks for a Passion Play performance the town held in his honor in 1871. The statue was unveiled in 1875. At the time, it was the largest statue of its kind, weighing 58 tons!
King Ludwig Kreuzigungsgruppe Oberammergau
An inscription on the statue reads, “From King Ludwig II, in memory of the Passion Play”. The Bavarian monarch attended a special performance of the play in 1871. The inhabitants of Oberammergau have held the Christian play depicting the life and death of Jesus since 1634. One year earlier, the residents made the pledge to do so regularly, if God spared them from the devastating Bubonic Plague that was ravaging parts of Europe.
King Ludwig Kreuzigungsgruppe Oberammergau 2
This detail on the Crucifixion Monument is similar to King Ludwig’s coat of arms at the entrance to the Neuschwanstein Castle.
kofel-koenig-ludwig-feuer-oberammergau 6
The King Ludwig Bonfire kicks off with a gun salute, followed by a bit of fireworks, and the lighting of the wooden crown and cross, both specially erected for the bonfire. Just to the back of the crown (left) is a permanent cross that sits on the Kofel’s summit
Oberammergau Ludwig Feuer 3

Oberammergau Ludwig Feuer 6
A troupe of Feuermachers (fire-makers) make their way down the mountain, creating a snake-like pattern.
kofel-koenig-ludwig-feuer-oberammergau 5
After the bonfire on the valley’s mountaintops, the fire-makers and Oberammergau residents make their way through the town’s main streets, accompanied by the tunes of a brass band and drummers. It’s a festive evening, with many locals hosting friends and family members at relaxed get-togethers.

Where in the World?

Planning Pointers:

  • The König-Ludwig-Feuer, or Ludwigsfeuer for short, is held in Oberammergau annually on 24 August, the eve of King Ludwig’s birthday. The celebration usually starts around 09:00 pm. and continues to approximately 10:30 pm. For details about the upcoming bonfire, refer to the Ammergau Alps website or the Ammergau Alps Facebook page.
  • I’ve heard that many visitors to Munich embark on organized tours for the spectacle — perhaps even staying overnight in Oberammergau. If you’d prefer to make the trip independently, research the Bayern Ticket (website is in German, but you can use Google Translate). As of 2021, these tickets start at €25 for one passenger, and cost €8 for each additional passenger. You can use the Bayern Ticket for most trains, trams, and city buses, making it a good deal if you’ll be doing a lot of exploring in one day. You can purchase tickets online, via a ticket machine, or in person. Oberammergau is located 90 km (55 miles) southwest of Munich.
  • Are you looking for accommodation in Oberammergau? Here is my round-up of hotels organized by theme.
  • The following page indexes all my posts from Germany, including visits to King Ludwig’s Neuschwanstein Castle and Schloss Linderhof.

Photography & text © Tricia A. Mitchell. All Rights Reserved.

Published by Tricia A. Mitchell

Tricia A. Mitchell is a freelance writer and photographer. Born in Europe but raised in the United States, she has lived in Valletta, Malta; Heidelberg, Germany; and Split, Croatia. An avid globetrotter who has visited more than 65 countries, she has a penchant for off-season travel. Tricia has learned that travel’s greatest gift is not sightseeing, rather it is the interactions with people. Some of her most memorable experiences have been sharing a bottle of champagne with distant French cousins in Lorraine, learning how to milk goats in a sleepy Bulgarian village, and ringing in the Vietnamese New Year with a Hanoi family. She welcomes any opportunity to practice French and German, and she loves delving into a place’s history and artisanal food scene. A former education administrator and training specialist, Tricia has a bachelor’s degree in elementary education and a master’s degree in international relations. She and her husband, Shawn, married in the ruins of a snowy German castle. They’ve been known to escape winter by basing themselves in coastal Croatia or Southeast Asia. Her writing has appeared in Fodor’s Travel, Frommer’s, and International Living.

32 thoughts on “A Valley Ablaze: The King Ludwig Bonfire in Oberammergau, Germany

    1. Kamal, thank you for your kind words. Indeed, I’ve gotten a chance to get to know Oberammergau better, since my parents call it home now. It’s a wonderfully relaxing place to be: fresh air, stunning landscapes, and fun traditional events, such as this one. I regret we’ll miss tonight’s bonfire, but I’m keeping my fingers crossed for good weather. Hope you had a lovely weekend!

    1. Darlene, what a coincidence about the birthdays! On a whimsical note, the Ukrainian veterinarian who tended to our former foster kitten, Cocoa, estimated that Cocoa’s birthday is 25 August. Cocoa’s new owner’s parent has a 25 August birthday too. This is fresh on my mind since we’ve just visited Cocoa the Cat and his wonderful family in Switzerland’s Italian-speaking canton of Ticino. More on that visit to come soon, but suffice it to say that Cocoa has grown into a stunning, loving cat, and he is living the good life. Wishing your husband a happy birthday in a few days!

    1. Ms. Corning, the rich history & tradition is pretty fantastic – even more impressive when one thinks how the “fire-makers” trek through the forest in the darkness! While we’d love to be in O-gau for this year’s bonfire, we’re not sure we will though; we shall see. If not, we have the memories from this Ludwigsfeuer back in 2013. :)

  1. Dear Tricia, as an “old” Bavarian, I enjoyed this post so much, as I have never heard of the Koenig-Ludwig-Feuer, so I am learning now from you. Maybe I have been gone from Germany for too long to know about such local events. In three weeks I’ll be going to Munich for a short trip for the wedding of one of my nieces, celebrated in the country site of Munich. My trip includes a stop over in Stockholm for 2 days. All very exciting. I do hope to get to Garmisch/Burgrain for a day visit my cousin, as my 103 year old aunt, had passed away, on August 8th, she left peacefully and is relieved from all discomfort. She meant so much for me when I was young and still does. Enjoy the beauty of the Alps around you.

    1. Cornelia, first, I’m very sorry to learn of your aunt’s passing, as in the past, you’d mentioned how special she was to you. May you continue to have fond memories of your time together.

      As for the Ludwigsfeuer, I’m happy to hear that you enjoyed this piece about it! Until my parents moved to Oberammergau, I’d never heard of this bonfire, which is steeped in so much tradition. Perhaps some 24 August, you’ll be in Bavaria and able to find a special spot in Oberammergau (my parents’ home, even) to watch it!

      Thank you for saying hello! At the moment, we’re actually enjoying the Swiss Alps, and guess who we’re visiting? Our dear friends who adopted Cocoa, our Ukrainian foster kitten. :)

      1. Tricia, thank you so much for your comforting words. Unfortunately I won’t be in Germany yet for this event. I’ll be flying into Munich from on September 10th. Oh how sweet that your get to visit Cocoa and her carrying “parents” I am sure she is in the right place. Would you please provide us as readers with pictures of the kitten? Enjoy the Swiss Alps in it’s Beauty.

      2. Cornelia, perhaps you can enjoy the Ludwigsfeuer another August then. :) We will undoubtedly be sharing photos from our time in Ticino, Switzerland, visiting our new friends/Cocoa’s extraordinary family. We’ve just left there after 6 special days together, and I was touched by how well Cocoa is being taken care of by his family. To say he is living like a prince is an understatement. What a lucky and handsome cat!

      3. Thank you, Cornelia! And regarding chocolate, our friends saw to it that we were treated to a scrumptious variety of chocolate and gelato. I’ll need to climb a few mountains to work off all the calories. :)

  2. Wow! Fantastic – I recently traced some of my ancestors back to Bavaria and hope to visit one day!

    1. Travelscoutadventure, I also enjoy tracing my family roots, and along with ties to France, Lithuania, England, Norway, and Austria, I have family from Germany, and specifically Bavaria. Did you use any specific sites to do your research, and do you know what part of Bavaria they came from? Here’s hoping you’ll get to Bayern soon!

      1. I actually found a family bible that recorded my ancestors back to the 1700’s – with that information I used ancestry.com where I found the Bavarians. There were a handful from the Swabia region and a few from the Upper Palatinate specifically Regensburg.

      2. What a lucky find! So far we haven’t had the fortune of finding the family lineage all jotted down like that. Were you able to find any other people researching your family, so that you could ultimately connect with distant cousins in Germany? We’ve found that to be one of the most fun aspects of doing genealogy, even if we might be something like “7th cousins a few times removed” with the distant family we eventually meet.

    1. Hi Lynne, surprisingly, I don’t think the event is marketed much. Two years ago, when it was one of the bigger anniversaries of the Ludwigsfeuer, they did post some signs in the town, but I don’t recall having seen any this summer. I might have overlooked them, though. Unfortunately, we’ll miss tonight’s bonfire, as we are out of town. I know my parents will give me the full report though!

  3. This is such a fascinating post, something I had never heard about ~ but the photos and history you have written about and shown makes me take a shine to King Ludwig II, what a great time it looks to be. At I think I could also enjoy a nice Bavarian beer or two… The photos of the fire, torches create a great effect in the night, what an experience it must have been.

    1. Randall, if it’s beer you fancy, you’d be in great company the night of the Ludwigsfeuer, either drinking at a local’s informal get-together, or in a pub ’til the wee hours of the night. I used to enjoy the occasional beer myself, before my gluten-free days. True beer enthusiasts would likely cringe to hear that I favored Radler. It’s a 50/50 blend of sparkling lemonade and beer. :) Prost to you!

    1. Carol, within the past years I’ve heard of several books written about King Ludwig, and I wonder if they might interest you? One was a novel, another a biography. (I haven’t read them, but do recall seeing something about his less-than-fairytale-childhood.) Did you get a chance to visit his Schloss Linderhof too? I haven’t been inside that palace for a while, but one of its outlying buildings contains a grotto structure in which the king was rowed over the lake in a golden swan boat. Schloss Linderhof is close to Oberammergau, and I think historians guess that this proximity, coupled with his Passion Play attendance, strengthened the bond between Oberammergau residents and Ludwig.

  4. Tricia, I enjoy that your posts are a great combination of details about the place and its events as well as instructions and tips on how to visit. On our last trip to Munich, we were going to visit the far south, but didn’t have time to do it justice, so we decided to return and focus just on this area. We have heard of Oberammergau, and after your post we’ll put it on the list. ~James

    1. I’m glad to hear you like the format of the articles, James; thank you! I apologize for my escargot-paced reply, but we’ve been settling in following our travels through Northern Italy and Switzerland. Knowing how you and Terri enjoy traveling to Europe in the early autumn, I think you’d like Oberammergau that time of year. So long as it’s not raining (as it has been these past days – ahh, we miss the sunshine) September is a splendid time to hit the hiking trails around Oberammergau. Wish you safe & fun travels to the Balkans!

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